top of page

The Complexities of Communication: Why It’s a Miracle Anyone Manages to Understand Anything at All.

Wrong end of the stick. Wires crossed. Baffled expressions and head-scratching moments. We've all been there, left utterly bewildered by a conversation, an email, or a text. You know, those times when you read a message and think, 'What the heck are they talking about?' Maybe you even find yourself screen-shotting the chat and sending it to a friend asking, 'Can you make sense of this?'

Communication is a fundamental aspect of human interaction, yet it's riddled with pitfalls. Our brains process information in astonishingly intricate ways, leading to a vast array of misinterpretations.

Why does miscommunication happen?

1. Semantic Ambiguity: Language is rich and nuanced, but it's also inherently imprecise

A single word, or the omission of one, can carry multiple meanings depending on context, tone, and cultural influences.

Consider the Apollo 11 Moon Landing: As Neil Armstrong set foot on the lunar surface, his famous words echoed around the world: "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." However, his intended message was slightly different: "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind." The absence of the "a" led to a subtle shift in meaning — referring to humanity versus referring to a single individual, sparking debates and discussions for decades.

2. Confirmation Bias: We often hear what we want to hear

We emphasise information that aligns with our preconceived ideas or expectations, while ignoring evidence to the contrary.

Imagine you're at a dinner party with friends. You're passionately debating a controversial political topic; the ideas and opinions shared are many and varied. You tend to support and favour those that support your view, ignoring and dismissing the opposing arguments—a classic case of confirmation bias in social discussions.

3. Naive Realism: The assumption of shared perspective

We believe that our perspective is “right” and thus, everyone else must think the same. This means we assume that others know what we’re talking about because what we see is what they see too.

In a corporate meeting, team members from different departments discuss a complex project. Each department head assumes that their team's priorities and objectives are evident to everyone. They believe that their perspective is the most reasonable and should be readily understood by others. As a result, they become frustrated when their colleagues seem to overlook crucial details or resist their suggestions. Naive realism in this context prevents effective collaboration, as team members fail to recognise that their unique departmental viewpoints may not be obvious to everyone else, leading to misunderstandings and delays in the project.

4. Cognitive Load: Multitasking and missed details

We’re often doing too many things at once — juggling tasks and multiple priorities. The more things we’ve got going on, the less attention we’re paying to what’s happening in the here and now.

You're out of the office at a conference. You're listening to the keynote but you're getting bombarded with notifications on your phone. You're trying to focus and take notes, but you're also responding to personal texts and checking work emails. It's likely you'll miss crucial information from the session, and struggle to retain the information effectively.

Strategies for Effective Communication: How to Navigate the Complexity

Communication has its many challenges. Despite this, there are things we can do to ensure our messages are clear and better understood, while minimising the likelihood of misunderstandings. Here are a few ideas:

  • Break it down:  When communicating, express yourself clearly and aim for clarity. Break down complex ideas into simpler components and use concrete examples to illustrate your points.

  • Use visual aids: Graphics and images can be powerful tools to supplement verbal communication, especially when dealing with complex ideas. The Picture Superiority Effect suggests that people remember information better when it's presented in both visual and verbal ways.

  • Use metaphors and analogies: These techniques connect unfamiliar concepts to the audience's existing knowledge and experiences. This relatability bridges the gap between the known and the unknown, helping the audience better comprehend and remember the information.

  • Check for understanding: Make sure your audience is following. Pause and check-in. Provide opportunities for conversation to address any potential misunderstandings before they escalate.

  • Practice active listening: Truly hearing what someone is saying involves more than just hearing the words. Active listening involves engaging with the speaker, asking clarifying questions, and acknowledging their perspective.

  • Gain perspective: Empathy, the ability to understand and share the feelings of another, plays a vital role in effective communication. When we approach a conversation with empathy, we're more attuned to the emotional context underlying the words. This emotional awareness can prevent misunderstandings, as we're more likely to consider the other person's perspective.

  • Use alternative channels: For crucial discussions, consider using synchronous communication methods (i.e., forms of communication in which participants engage in real-time interactions) like phone calls or video meetings to ensure clarity.

Communication is complex and influenced by a myriad of factors — from the nuances of language to underlying beliefs and assumptions, as well as the power of non-verbal cues. As we navigate this complexity, we're reminded that clear communication is an art that demands effort, open-mindedness, understanding, and empathy.


Key takeaway: Striving for clarity, actively listening, and seeking feedback are some of the tools that help us avoid miscommunication, and the things that come with it. In the end, it’s worth the effort because we all want to be heard and to be understood – and we all want to understand each other.


bottom of page